Preschool Children and Cognitive Development
Adapted from Alexandra Louis
During the preschool and kindergarten years, children begin to develop and learn new skills through play. Play encourages all the important areas of development. It includes social, emotional, physical, communication/language and cognitive development. This refers to learning to question, problem-solve, learn about spatial relationships. In addition, they acquire knowledge through imitation, memory, number sense, classification, and symbolic play.
Cognitive Development Skills Learned During Preschool
When a child asks ‘why?’ in order to determine causes. A child asks questions to solve problems, and clarify their understanding.
- Spatial Relationships
Exploring the spatial and physical aspects of their environment. For example, a child places a toy into a container, dumps it out and then fills up the container again with the toy.
- Problem Solving
When children experiment, investigate, and work together with other children to problem solve. For example, when children ask questions to understand what will happen next.
When children imitate the behaviors of those around them (e.g. other children, educators and parents). For example, when a child sticks out their tongue, imitating another child who has done the same.
Beginning to differentiate between objects and people, and learn their daily routines. For example, when a child puts away their toy bin back in the same place it was on the shelf before.
- Number Sense
A child’s understanding of number concepts (e.g. more and less) and number relationships. They begin to understand quantities, recognize relationships and understand the order of numbers. For example, singing along to ‘Five Little Monkeys Jumping on the Bed’.
A child’s ability to categorize, sort, group, and connect objects. For example, sorting different colored pom poms into the same colored boxes.
- Symbolic Play
During play, children use objects, ideas and actions to stand for other things. For example, holding a toy phone up to their ear or rocking a baby back and forth.
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